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Archive for January, 2012


“O! Ancient Land of India, O! Protector of mankind, I bow to

thee. O! Sacred Land, centuries of horrible atrocities have not

been able to destroy you, welcome to thee. O! Originator and

Mother of faith, love, art and science, I bow to thee.”

– M. Louis Jacolliot

In our modern times, mankind is passing through a kind of mindless skepticism and destructive despair. No sensible person in this scientific age can accept and adore the out-dated dogmas and theories of salvation propagated by some fanatic theologians. As the very basis of Hindu Dharma is founded on logic and reason, mankind is today naturally looking towards the rational spirituality of Sanatana Dharma for a greater vision of life. It is right time for the Hindu Dharma to take the initiative to promote its principles as it can bestow a greater destiny to mankind. “Tamaso maa jyotirgamaya”, the clarion call of Vedas which means, “Lead me from darkness to Light”, should inspire the whole humanity.

The Hinduism, the main religion of the Indian subcontinent is an all embracing one. The holy trinity of the Christianity is akin to the holy trio of “Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesha”.

The Islamic theological concept of “the existence of only one god” and “the worshipping of only one god” was already an inherent and integral part of the concept of the non-dualism that has existed in the Indian subcontinent since times immemorial and much well before the coming of the Islam in this world.

Some like to call the Hinduism “the Sanaatana Dhrma” in view of the former term being a corrupt form of the much later evolved concept woven around the religion of the people living to the east of “the river Sindhu” whose correct pronunciation the Greeks found quite difficult and therefore who pronounced it conveniently as “the river Indus”.

Now, it is easy to see as to why the people living to the east of the river Indus, that is in the Indian subcontinent came to be called “the Hindus”. I would like to term it “the religion of the Indian subcontinent”.

Today, in this age of terrorism of all the shades and political fanaticism, the world needs urgently to practice the virtues of the “full respect to all the religions, the peace, the global citizenship and the full respect to the females.”

The Hinduism mainly teaches inter alia the virtues of the full respect to all the religions, the peace, the global citizenship and the full respect to the females as is clear from the following quotes/phrases from the Sanskrit language:
Sarva Dharma Sambhaava (the literal meaning: same attitude towards all the religions). This means the religious tolerance.
Ahinsaa Permo dhrma (the literal meaning: the non-violence is greatest of all the religions). This means that we must renounce the violence and instead follow the path of the peace.
Vasudhaeva kutumbkama (the literal meaning: the whole of the earth/globe is a family). This means that all the people living on all parts of the globe are a big loving family.
Yatra Naarayastu Pujyantae Ramantae Tatra Daevataa. Yatraenaastu Na Pujayantae Srvaastatraaphalaaha Kreyaaha (the literal meaning: the gods reside at the place where the female is worshipped and all activities are unsuccessful where no respect for females exists).
This means that the females in the world enjoy more than equal rights as compared to the males and as such the females have to be given the full freedom, the rights and the respect
Hindu Dharma is the science of human harmony and all round development. It not only aims at the development of the mind and body of the individual, but also strives for the collective welfare of the entire family, the society, the nation and, ultimately, of the whole world, in perfect harmony.

While the Abrahamic religions follow the dictum of “the survival of the fittest”, which is the root cause of all sorts of exploitation and violence on the weak and poor nations,

Sanatana Dharma very much believes in the policy of “live and let live” i.e. “Jeevastha Jeevyasam” (Atharva Veda). According to the historical accounts, India never invaded any country in the past.

And again, while the Abrahamic faiths consider man as a born sinner, and they love to divide the humanity into two hostile camps of ‘believers’ and ‘non-believers’ wherein the latter need to

be converted to be saved from perdition and eternal hellfire, the principles of Sanathana Dharma are designed to unite the people of the world into one international family. It declares:

“vasudhaiva kutumbakam”, the whole world is one family. While the materialistic viewpoints of the West consider the world as an accidentally emerged stage of meaningless life forms and man as a mere toy of a blind Nature, Hindu Dharma emphasizes the fact that all beings are the expressions of the One Supreme Reality and that man is equipped with the innate spiritual strength and freedom of discovering, realizing and manifesting his true divine nature. And consequently, Nature is not something meant for human exploitation, consumption and self-aggrandizement but for adoration as the veritable manifestation of the Divine, by extending universal love and service to one and all.

Because of its universality, Hindu Dharma in inherently equipped to proclaim itself to be the finest way of life for the whole mankind, i.e. Maanava Dharma. It is a fact that all modern, liberal and noble thoughts like democracy, universalism and religious tolerance, etc., have their origin in Sanatana Dharma. The Rig-Veda emphasizes the spirit of this culture in the following words: “Let noble thoughts come to us from all directions” (aa no bhadraah kratavo yantu vishvathah).

Of course, Sanatana Dharma and India have ever been supporting the natural principle of “unity in diversity” and it respects the noble values of all religions, thereby generating universal peace and harmony. Since Sanatana Dharma is the mother of all ancient cultures, it stands for the co-existence and peaceful evolution of all religious, social, and economic systems of the world.

Sanatana Dharma has never established its colonies or forced people to become slaves as done by many western religionists. Sanatana Dharma has never committed inhuman atrocities like inquisition — burning people alive for refusing to get converted or committing fraud and tempting with allurements for changing the faith of the masses. Religious conversions have resulted in tension and hatred among different communities and races. The Sanatana Dharma never indulges in the inhuman act of converting others and destroying their places of worship.

“Ahimsa paramodharmah”, non-violence is the supreme Dharma — man’s foremost obligation — is the watchword of Sanatana Dharma, and it is the sheet anchor of all the saints and sages of India, who invariably exemplified in their life the teachings of Ahimsa.

“May all be safe in this world” is the Vedic concept of safety and world peace. The Vedic dictum is: “sarve bhavantu sukhinah, sarve santu niramayaah, sarve bhadrani pashyantu,

maa kashchit dukha bhaagbhavet,” and “lokah samasta sukhino bhavantu, sarve janaa sukhino bhavantu, Om shanthih, shanthih, shanthih”, meaning, may all be happy, may none suffer, may all be free from afflictions, may all be endowed with resources and necessaries of life, may all behold what is good and auspicious, may all be wedded to the vow of commonweal, and may none suffer from sorrow. May the world be happy and peaceful, may all people be happy and peaceful, and may peace be unto all”.

The twin tenets of Hindu Dharma — Satya and Ahimsa (truth and non-violence) — adopted by Gandhiji throughout his political career have changed the course of history and prompted

many countries of the world to get their freedom in that way. Acharya Vinoba Bhave, the greatest disciple of Mahatma Gandhi says, “If science and violence are allowed to exist together they are bound to destroy the world sooner or later.”

Non-violence should be the motto of the whole world. There in lies the salvation of the mankind. In fact that is the ‘sacred gift’ of Sanatana Dharma to the whole of mankind.

War in this atomic age can lead mankind to extinction. Such a disaster should be averted at any cost, and Sanatana Dharma can play an important role today in this regard. “Prevent the disaster before it strikes you” is the significant saying of the Vedas.

the non-violence of Sanatana Dharma should take the initiative to lead the world so that the world can progress peacefully and prosperously. The ‘Atom for Peace’ and the foreign policy of India is one of the modern outcomes of the ancient philosophy of Sanatana Dharma.

Our modern civilization has all the negative black spots on it. Anyone who reflects seriously would realize that it is a barbaric and dehumanizing civilization with all its ugly heads. Relentless and greedy exploitation of mother nature, consumerism, abuse of audio-visual media for the detriment of society, economic agenda without any altruistic motive, political philosophy with sinister hidden designs, progress without the noble intention to help every being on earth, unprecedented torture of animals, a military technology to annihilate each other, corruption in every walk of life, vulgar exploitation of women, pornography, skyrocketing violence and crime, uncontrolled spread of AIDs, uneven economical prosperity which concentrates power in the hands of a few malicious nations or individuals, ferociously indulgent life style, callous disregard to the downtrodden and the miserable, extreme self-centeredness, competitive rat-race, lack of complimentarity with a ‘live and let live’ ideal, morbid interpersonal relationship based on mutual exploitation etc., are the examples.

At this crucial juncture, revival and regeneration of our innate spiritual instinct is the need of the hour. Whatever nation or religion we may belong to, our final spiritual goal is the same: love and compassion to every being on earth and a reverence to our Mother Nature and peaceful co-existence with each other.”

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SANATHANA DHARMA-ITS SIGNIFICIANCE IN MODERN WORLD.

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What is the first thing you think of when you hear the word “Meditation” –Saints sitting on ashrams & temples in pretzel-like poses? While that might be the case somewhere, the truth is meditation is much simpler than that. It is a state of being, like being aware, being surprised, or being calm. Confusing? It doesn’t have to be like that. Just be calm and open your mind to not thinking.

History of Meditation

Meditation can be traced back to hundreds of years BC and is found in virtually every culture. The methods and processes vary from each philosophy, but the end goal is the same – to achieve awareness of your inner self by suspending conscious thought. Depending on where the particular philosophy of meditation is derived will determine how deeply spiritual the process may be. Eastern cultures have a spiritual philosophy referring to meditation, while Western cultures tend to take a less religious approach. In the most recent years, meditation refers to the actions involved in quieting the mind and body to allowing oneself to become aware of the self inside your consciousness.

Objective:

* To live in the moment of divine bliss realizing boundless energy
* To pacify negative emotions and attain peace
* To attain physical, mental and emotional health
* Transforming and transmuting the nature and behaviour towards non-violence way of living
* Purification of consciousness to know the ultimate truth
* Balancing action, reaction and inaction.

Metaphysical basis

* There is bondage
* There are causes of bondage
* There is freedom
* There are ways of attaining freedom

Scientific basis

* Neuro-endocrine system regulates and governs human’s actions
* Emotions and hormones responsible for good and bad activities
* Subconscious mind controls human behaviour
* Innate mechanism describes human personality

Elements

* Kayotsarg – Complete relaxation with self awareness
* Antaryatra – Internal trip of body & consciousness
* Svash Preksha – Perception of long breathing
* Sharir Preksha – Perception of body

* Chaitanya Kendra Preksha – Perception of psychic centres
* Leshya Dhyan – Perception of psychic colours
* Anupreksha & Bhavana – Contemplation & auto suggestion
* Asana & Pranayam – Postures and breathing process
* Dhvani & Mudra – Healing sound & hand postures

Benefits and outcome

Physical

* Biochemical changes
* Strengthens immune system
* Sustains optimal health
* Removes tension
* Revitalizes body cells
* Improves respiration and flow of vital energy

Mental

* Improves mental balance
* Increases memory, concentration and decision power
* Develops patience and tolerance power
* Cleans and relaxes the mind
* Enhances will power and builds self confidence

Emotional

* Transformation of negative emotions into positive
* Removal of psychological distortions

Behavioural

* Increases working efficiency, creativity, detachment and good qualities
* Change of habits and attitudes

hope you enjoyed reading this article.. i will be posting more on the subject.just keep following…

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UNCONDITIONAL LOVE


“A girl asked a guy if he thought she was pretty,
He said…no. She asked him if he would want to be with her forever…and he said no.
She then asked him if she were to leave would he cry, and once again he replied with a no.

She had heard enough. As she walked away, tears streaming down her face the boy stopped her and said..
You’re not pretty you’re beautiful.
I don’t want to be with you forever, I NEED to be with you forever.
And I wouldn’t cry if you walked away…I’d die…”

Unless a love affair is very concious, it is going to creat great anguish,great trouble for the boy & girl.
All lovers are in trouble.
the trouble is not personnel;it is the very nature og things.they would not have been attracted to each other… they call it falling in love.they canot give a reason why they have such a tremondous pull towards each other. they are not even concious of the underlying causes.;hence a strange thing happens;the happiest lovers are those who never meet.
once they meet the same opposition that created the atrraction becomes conflict.on each small point, their attitudes are different,their approaches are are diffrent.although they speek same language,they cannot understand each other….

If both parteners are concious of the fact that it is a meeeting of opposites,that there is no need to make conflict,then it is a great opportunity to understand the totaly opposite point of view and absorb it. then the life of man &women together can become a beautiful harmony.otherwise ,it is continuos fight.

love never enforces anything on any one

love never tries to dominate,to dictate

love with eyes knows when to say NO,when to say YES.

love neither interferes in anybody’s life nor allows anybody else to interfere into one’s own life.

love gives individuality to others,but doesnot lose its own individuality

love makes no conditions.

love gives you freedom to be your self. even if it goes against his/her intrest,still.a loving person will suffer himself/herself rather than make the loved one suffer……

when a boy & a girl ,their being opposites to each other.the further away they are,the deeper wiill be attraction,but there lies the whole problem.
when they come close,they want to come closer,they want to merge into each other,they want to become one,a harmonius whole-but thier whole attrraction depends on opposition,and harmony will depend on dissolving the opposition.

men and women are two parts of one whole.

so rather than wasting time in fighting,try to understand each other.try to put yourself in the place of other;try to see as a man sees,try to see as a women sees.and the four eyes are always better than two eyes.you have full view.

All the conflict in the world is because of Mis understanding.if you say something the other understand something else..

so try to understand each other………

 

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DONT QUIT


 When things go wrong as they sometimes will;

 When the road you’re trudging seems all uphill;

When the funds are low, and the debts are high

 And you want to smile, but have to sigh;

 When care is pressing you down a bit

 Rest if you must, but do not quit.

Success is failure turned inside out;

The silver tint of the clouds of doubt;

And you can never tell how close you are

 It may be near when it seems so far;

So stick to the fight when you’re hardest hit

 It’s when things go wrong that you must not quit.

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Mohiniyattam or the dance of the enchantress is a classical art form performed by the women in Kerala.It is perhaps one of the most graceful dance styles among the South Indian classical dance forms. Evocative of the swaying paddy plants and coconut trees in the land of kerala,this dance form is charactarised by soft and gentle movements in the traditon of lasya (grace) and shringara(love).

Mohiniyattom is the finest essence of lasya. It has evolved its every movements ,gestures and footsteps in keeping with the message of a celestial dance -gentle,yet breeathing out an inner vitality. The aim is beauty, not sedution. It aims at perfection of form without flaw.

The music accompaniment is traditionally sopanam music. The Sopanam music is played at the temple doors in Kerala as wake up songs for gods.This uses a special kind of drum called Edakka. . Mohiniyattom costume is in the traditional Keralite cream colour saree with golden border.

To Be Contd……………………………………….

please find photo(mohini aatam) in ths link. http://www.orkut.com/Main#Album.aspx?uid=4101483196539544826&aid=1213844584

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The Gods & Godesses pleaded Lord Brahma to create another veda which would be simple for the common man to understand. It is believed that considering this request Lord Brahma created the Panchamaveda, Fifth veda, Natyaveda, an essence of the other four vedas. It is believed that he has taken pathya (words) form the Rigveda, abhinaya (gesture) from the Yajurveda, geet (music and chant) from Samaveda and rasa (sentiment and emotional element) from Atharvaveda to form the fifth veda, Natyaveda.

After creating this natyaveda, Lord Brahma gave the same to sage Bharata and asked him to popularise this veda on earth. Following the words of Lord Brahma, sage Bharata wrote Natyashastra or the Science of Dramaturgy, a great, comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama, dance and music.Bharatanatyam might have got its name from sage Bharata also.The dancers still follow this work to perform.

There is also another story which says that Godess Parvathi tought this dance form to Usha, daughter of Banasura, a demon. Usha taught the same to the Gopikas of the city of Dwaraka, Lord Krishna’s birth place. Thus the divine dance form Bharatanatyam was introduced to the mankind.

In Indian mythology,Lord Shiva is considered as the supreme lord of dance. This divine art form is performed by Lord Shiva & his wife Goddess Parvathi. The Dance performd by Lord Shiva is known as Tandava, which depicts his violent nature as the distructor of the universe. The tandava performed with joy is called Ananda Tandava and performed in violent mood is called Rudra Tandava. There are 7 types of Tandava. Namely Ananda Tandava, Tripura Tandava, Sandhya Tandava, Samara Tandava, Kaali tandava, Uma Tandava and Gauri Tandava. There are few people who believa that there are 16 types of Tandava. Tandava has vigourous, brisk movements.The dance performed by Goddess Parvathi is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle, graceful and sometimes erotic also. Some scholars call Lasya as the feminine version of Tandava.

The art form has definitely gone through lot of changes over the years. In olden days it was performed mostly by female artists. They were called Devadasis, who would perform in the temples. These devadasis were accomplished artists who would sing, dance, play many instruments. They were well worsed in sanskrit & other languages which helped them to interpret compositions which they would perform. But this tradition came to an end as the devadasis lost their position in the society.
To know more about devadasis please click here

Then dance entered the royal courts. Here the artists called Rajanartakis, performed in the courts of kings who gave them shelter.Even these were accomplished artists like devadasis.

The next well-documented period of dance history is far more recent. In the first half of the 19th century the dance tradition was revitalized and defined anew through the contributions of four talented brothers (known today as the Tanjore Quartet)Chinniah, Sivanandam, Ponniah and Vadivelu. By coordinating their diverse talents, the four managed to organize all the basic dance movements of pure dance into a progressive series of lessons [adavu chapters]. Each adavu (basic unit of motion) was taught in systematic order and then combined with others to produce choreographed sequences based upon the rhythmic contour of a musical composition (Krishnamoorthy Pillai). In addition the brothers composed new music specifically for the dance, and introduced a different sequence of items which integrated the various aspects of dance and music into a carefully coordinated, aesthetically sound progression. This infusion of creative energy marks the early 19th century as one of the most innovative periods in the history of Indian dance.

The contribution of Udayshankar, Rukminidevi Arundale and Balasaraswathi, in the 20th century, cannot be forgotten at this juncture.

Even though Bharatanatyam has gone through lot of changes, it still has its roots deep into the religious and rich mythological heritage of India. In the modern day scenario it is performed by both male & female artists. Many learn as a hobby and few make it as a profession. Whether taken as a hobby or a profession it certainly needs lot of practice,concentration and dedication.

Bharatanatyam is evenly divided between three elements Nritta, Nritya and Natya .

Nritta : Rhythmic Element.Interprits the language of rhythm with the help of body movements.

Nritya : Combination of Rhythm with Expression.Conveys poetic meaning with the help of expressions, rhythmic gaites and postures. eg. Varna, Shabda, Pada etc.

Natya : Dramatic Element.Performing for a theme like Ramayana, Mahabharata etc.

Nritta
Nritta can be broadly divided into Chari, Karana, Angahara and Mandala. Movement of a leg is called Chari. Movement of both the legs is Karana. 3 Karanas make a Khanda. 3 to 4 Khandas make a Mandala. 4 to 9 Karanas make a Angahara. 4 to 5 Angaharas also make a Mandala. 108 Karanas and 32 Angaharas are defined in Natyashatra. The 13 Nritta Hastas (explained later) are used to perform nritta. The rythmic body movements along with hand gestures are called Aduvus. Number of aduvus constitute a Jati. Jati will generally end with a Muktaya or Teermana.
There are varieties of Aduvus like

Tattaduvu
Mettaduvu
Nataduvu
Kattaduvu
Kudittamettaduvu
Maiaduvu
Mandiaduvu
Jati
Nadai
Ardi

There are 12 aduvus in each of the above explained. Hence 120 aduvus exist in total. Only about 70 – 80 are in practice. The aduvus are more or less Karanas. Hence can be concluded that there are 108 aduvus. The 108 Karanas or Aduvus are carved in the Chidambaram Temple in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. To perform an aduvu aramandi, bending of the knees is very very important.

The entire body is divided as Anga, Pratyanga and Upaanga.
Anga
Anganyatra shirohastau vaksha paarshwakateetatau
Paadaviti shaduktaani greevamapyapare jaguhu
Head, Hands, Chest, Waist, Bottom, Legs are the Six Angas. Some people include Neck also.

Pratyanga
Pratyangaani twathaskandhau baahoo prushtam tathodaram
ooroo janghe shadityahurapare manibandhakau
jaanooneekoorparamiti trayamapyadhikam jaguhu
Shoulders, Arms, Stomuch, thighs, Knee are the Six Pratyangas. Some people include Wrist, elbow and Ankle also.

Upaanga
Drushtibhrooputatarashcha kapolau naasikaahanuhu
Adharodashanaa jihwaa chubukam vadanam tatha
Upaangani dwadashitaanyanyaanyangaani santi cha
Paarshnee gulbautathangulyaa karayoho padayostale
Sight, Eyebrow, Eye lids, Eye balls, Cheeks, Nose, Gums, Lower Lip, Teeth, Tongue, Chin and Face are the 12 Upaangas. Few people include Heels, Fingers, Feet, Palm also into upaangas.
Pratynaga and Upaangas should move along with the Angas.
Anga Lakshana, the way of moving body parts, are described below.

Shirobhedha – Head Movement
Greevabhedha – Neck Movement
Drushtibhedha – Eye Movement
Paadabhedha
Mandala – Standing Posture
Utplavana – Leaps
Bhramari – Circling Movement
Chari – Leg Movement
Gatibhedha – Charecteristic walks and
Hastas or Mudras – Hand Movements
Asamyuta Hasta
Samyuta Hasta
Deva Hasta
Dashavatara Hasta
Navagraha Hasta
Jaati Hasta
Bandhu Hasta
Nritta Hasta

When all Angas(main body parts) coordinate (along with pratyanga and upaanga) the artist is said to have Angashudhi. Anga meaning body parts and shudhi, meaning perfect. Any dancer should try to achive this perfection. The Natyashastra, which talks about all aspects of Bharatanatyam, quotes shlokas to perform all the above movements

Aspects of Abhinaya

The expressions which are shown to express poetic meanings is Abinaya. Here the emphasis is more on facial expressions than rhythmic movements. The Abinaya is divided as
Angikabhinaya
Vachikabhinaya
Aharyabhinaya
Satvikabhinaya

Angikabhinaya : Expressing the meanings of lyrics using the body parts like Head, Hands, Legs etc. is Angikabhinaya. The Bhedas which i have explained above come under Angikabhinaya.
Vachikabhinaya : Expressing the Story using narrations in the dance drama is Vachikabhinaya.
Aharyabhinaya : Imitating the Costumes, Jewellary, Make-up etc. in a dance comes under Aharyabhinaya.
Satvikabhinaya :Showing the Bhava(moods) come under Satvikabhinaya.

Lord Shiva is praised as the embodiment of the above 4 types of abinaya in this following shloka.

Angikam bhuvanam yasya
Vachicam sarva vangmayam
Aharyam chandra taradi
tam vande satvikam shivam.

Meaning for the above shloka is

We bow to Him the benevolent One
Whose limbs are the world,
Whose song and poetry are the essence of all language,
Whose costume is the moon and the stars…”

In Lord Shiva’s well-known pose of NATARAJA,
his right hand holds the drum of creation – symbolising a new awakening
his left hand holds fire – representing destruction of the old order
his other right hand is raised in blessing
the other left hand points to his left foot, which has crushed demon Muyalaka – representing ignorance.

There are nine main or primary emotions, Sthayibhavas. It is also termed as Rasa(Mood).

Shringara – Love
Hasya – Mirth
Veera – Heroism
Roudra – Anger
Bhayanaka – Terror
Bheebatsa – Disgust
Adbhuta – Wonder
Karuna – Compassion
Shanta – Tranquility

Vatsalya(Parental fondling) rasa is also sometimes included as one of the stayibhava.
Vibhava (cause of emotion), Anubhava (effect of emotion) and Sanchari bhava (subordinate emotions) constitute the state of rasa.
Now i would like to talk about Nayika(the Heroine) and Nayaka (the Hero) bhav

The Nayika Bhava

The shastras have classified the basic mental status of woman, the Nayika, into Eight divisions, called Ashtanayika bhavas. These divisions portray the heroine in different situations, express different feelings, sentiments & reactions.
The Ashtanayika bhava are
Abhisarika
Kalahantarika
Khandita
Proshitapathika
Swadheenapathika
Vasakasajjika
Virahotkantita
Vipralabda

Abhisarika – She is the one who boldly goes out to meet her lover.
Kalahantarika – She is the one who is repenting her hastiness in quarrelling with her lover, which has resulted in their seperation.
Khandita – She is the one who is angry with her lover for causing dissapointment.
Proshitapathika – She is the one who is suffering in the absence of her beloved, who is away on a long journey.
Swadheenapathika – She is the one who is proud of her husband’s or beloved’s love and loyalty.
Vasakasajjika – She is the one who is preparing for the arrival of her beloved, by decorating herself and her surroundings. to provide a pleasent welcome to her lover.
Virahotkantita – She is the one who is seperated from her lover & is yearning for reunion.
Vipralabda – She is the one who is dissapointed that her lover has not turned up at the tryst as he promised.

Other classifications of the Nayika bhava are
Mugdha – Inexperienced in love.
Madhya – Partly Experienced in love.
Pragalbha – Matured in the art of love.
This Pragalbha Nayika is further classified as
Dheera
Adheera
Dheeraadheera
Sweeya – Married & faithful to her husband.
Parakeeya – Married but in love with another man.
Samanya – A free woman, who truly belongs to any man for a price.
Jyeshta – The preferred one.
Kanishta – The other woman.

Further classifications are
Uttama – Self-controlled & tolerant.
Madhyama – Literally the middle one, who gives as she gets.
Adhama – Literally the low one, who has no self restraint.

The Companion to the Nayika plays an important role in any padam, javali or Ashtapadi. This Companion is the one to whom the Nayika will convey her feelings, she is the one who will take the message,if any, from the nayika to the nayaka, she is the one who will sort out the differences between the nayika & the nayaka. This companion is usuallly a girl who is close to the Nayika.
The classification of the Companion is as follows.
Daasi – Servant
Sakhi – Friend
Kaaroo – Woman from a lower caste
Chatriya – Step Sister
Prativamshini – Neighbour
Lindini – Saint
Shilpani – Artist
Swaa – Nayika herself as a messenger

The Nayaka Bhava
Just like the heroines, the moods and emotions of the hero are also classified into different divisions. The main division is

Dheerodaatta eg. Lord Rama
Dheeroddhata eg. Demon Ravana
Dheeralalita eg. Vatsaraaja
Dheerashanta eg. Buddha

The other classification is
Pati – Married & faithful to his wife.
Upapati – Married but in love with another woman.
Vaisika – One who pays & enjoys women.

Further Nayaka classifications
Anukoola – Faithful to the Woman. eg. Lord Rama
Dakshina – Loves all his wives or women. eg. Arjuna
Drishta – When rejected, pleads to be accepted by his woman. eg. Vaali
Shatha – The deceitful one. eg. Lord Krishna

Most of the ashtanayika bhavas are experienced by the Nayaka also though the depiction of ashtanayika is more than the nayaka.
Nayaka’s Companion plays an important role too. This companian is categorised as
Peetamardhana
Vita
Cheta
Vidooshaka …

Arangetram

Arangetram is a tamil word.Aranga meaning raised floor and Etram meaning climbing in Tamil,one of the south indian languages. It is also called Rangapravesha in Kannada, another south indian language, Ranga meaning Stage and Pravesha meaning Enter. Ideally this should be the first public performance of an artist. After learning bharatanatyam under the guidance of an accomplished guru, this is the occation for the proud guru to present his/her deciple to the public. This is the testing time for both the guru & the shishya(deciple) as the guru’s knowledge & the deciple’s talent both are judged by the public. Hence, the guru will decide when the deciple is ready for public appearence. Atleast 10 – 12 years of training is necessary to give a comendable performance.

This arangetram was known as Gejjepooje in old mysore district, meaning worshiping the jingles in kannada, a south indian language.For a dancer, jingles are considered devine. In olden days, deciples were not allowed to wear jingles till their first public performance. In their first performance, they were made to worship the jingles, wear them & then perform.
Accompaniments play a major role in the making of a memorable dance performance.Basic accompaniments are a Singer, Mridangam player, Violin player and ofcource the Natuvanga. Veena,Flute and other instruments are optional. These people sit in the corner of a stage or in a place in front of the stage which will be in a lower level than that of the stage.
The artist will wear lot of jewellery, make-up and a specially stitched dress. Jingles are a must.
Usually duration of an arangetram will be 2 1/2 – 3 hours. To perform for such long hours one must have good stamina and concentration. This time is divided into two halves.

In the first half the artists generally perform

Pushpanjali or Alaripu
Jatiswara
Shabda
Varna

In the second half

Padam
Ashtapadi or Devaranama
Tillana
Mangala

Pushpanjali
This is an item where the artist salutes to god, guru and the audience. This item is a warmup item where the artist prepares the body for the next few hours of vigorous performance.

Alaripu
This is a tamil word.Alar meaning to bloom. It comprises of set of movements without any meaning or expression. The movements are performed for syllables set for a beat(Tala). The complexity of the movements gradually increase. The steps are so formed that it looks like a bud blooming into a flower. This is also a warmup piece to prepare the body for the next few hours of performance. Eventhough there is no meaning, this can also be considered as an item where the artist salutes god,guru and the audience.

Jatiswaram
This is also an item where the movements will not convey any meaning or theme. Here the steps are more complex than the previous items. The composition can have amazing postures and teermanas or muktayas(ending of a jati). This is a musical composition set to a raga unlike alaripu which has only syllables.

Shabda
This is a dance item with both nritta & abinaya. Usually the theme of the lyrics will be devotional like praising lord krishna, depicting lord krishna’s childhood , praising a king etc.The movements here are leisurely.

Varna
This is the item where the dancers are tested for their capacity to perform abinaya & nritta. This can be treated as a benchmark to judge the artist’s talent.The item will contain many complex steps and will have lot of room for expressions also. To perform this item one should have lot of stamina & concentration. The lyrics can be devotional, praising a king etc. Varna can also have shrigara rasa as its theme.

Padam
In this dance item the dancer’s abhinaya is put into test. It narrates expression of divine love or pangs of seperation in love. The tempo is slow and the performance is based on a specific mood of love.Padams will have Nayaka(Hero, Supreme lover, Divine Lord)& Nayika(Heroine, the yearning soul). Heroine will talk to her friend(sakhi) and narrate her feelings towards her hero. The lyrics can be about how the hero has betrayed, how he has delayed the arrival, how she is angry with her beloved hero etc. The Nayika and Nayaka Bhavas are explained in detail Here.

Ashtapadi
These are poet Jayadeva’s Sanskrit compositions called Geetagovinda, an extremely romantic composition. It describes the love of Krishna and Radha in twelve cantos containing 24 songs. The songs are sung by Krishna or Radha or by Radha’s maid. Each Canto is named differently considering Krishna’s status of mind.

Saamodadamodara – Joyful Krishna
Aakleshakeshava – Careless Krishna
Mugdhamadhusoodhana – Bewildered Krishna
Snigdhamadhusoodhana – Tender Krishna
Saakankshapundareekaksha – Longing Krishna
Kuntavaikunta – Indolent Krishna
Naagaranaaraayana – Cunning Krishna
Vilakshalakshmeepatihi – Abashed Krishna
Mandamukunda – Languishing Krishna
Chaturachaturbhuja – Intellegent Krishna
Saanandadamodara – Blissful Krishna
Supreetapeetambara – Ecstatic Krishna
Expressions are given foremost importance while performing these poems. Needs lot of grace. The artist should be mature enough to understand the lyrics and the situation to show the rasas.

Devaranama
This item is a devotional piece where the lyrics are in praise of god, describing the god etc. This is a pure abhinaya item with almost no emphasis on nritta. Usually the lyrics are in Kannada. These songs are the compositions of great mystics like Purandharadaasa, Kanakadaasa, Vijayadaasa, Vyasaraaja to name a few. The compositions are popularly known as Daasa Sahitya. It is a devotional literatures written in simple language understood by common man. It has made remarkable contribution to the spiritual and cultural upliftment of people by preaching phylosophy of Love, Devotion and Peaceful Co-Existance.
If you are looking for some compositions, here they are.

Tillana
This is usually the last item in any bharatanatyam performance. Tillana is full of complicated movements & postures. This will also have complicated Muktayas or Sholkattu, ending of any step or aduvu. This is mainly a nritta piece which might have a charana, a meaningfull lyrics for which abinaya is shown.

Mangala
Meaning ending the performance. Here the artist will again salute god, guru & the audience for making the performance a success

Please find bharanatyam photos in this link
http://www.orkut.com/Main#Album.aspx?uid=4101483196539544826&aid=1215933819

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